a Just, Equitable and Egalitarian Pakistan
Released on September 30,
Born through the
ballot, Pakistan overcame the bullet to become the homeland of the Muslims
of South Asia. The great founder of the country, Quaid e Azam Mohammad Ali
Jinnah, fought for a free Pakistan where all its citizens could be equal
before the law enabling them to reach the heights of economic empowerment.
Quaid e Azam’s death robbed
Pakistan of a towering personality. It fell prey to the conspiracies of
the unelected power brokers in the military and bureaucracy. They
intrigued to rob the Pakistani people of their democratic rights and to re
The torch of Quaid e Azam
was passed to the Quaid e Awam who picked up the pieces of the Country
after the shameful surrender in the fields of Dacca. The country began to
prosper with reforms benefiting the downtrodden and under privileged.
But the military
bureaucratic complex continued to conspire. It took advantage of
international concerns about Pakistan’s nuclear program to kill democracy
and the democratic leader.
The workers of the Pakistan
Peoples Party, its democratic allies and the people confronted the dark
night of terror to save freedom, fundamental rights and the economic
emancipation of the downtrodden people.
were held in 1988. Tragically, the full transfer of power failed to take
place. The military leadership, which had now taken power even from the
bureaucratic class, destabilised the elected and representative
governments of the people. They fought with their own handpicked premiers
as well as with the choice of the people showing an inability to share
power or keep the national interest before them.
Once again the spectre of
dictatorship rose on the horizon. Having seized power through the bullet,
the dictatorship is now seeking to institutionalise dictatorship.
FREE WILL OF THE
The new weapon against the
people of Pakistan is the rigging of General Elections. This is done
through computer hacking into the Election Commission computers where
results are changed through virtual cast of bogus ballots.
The rigging of elections
has robbed the Pakistani people of hope in the ballot, which created
Pakistan, as a redeemer. Unless this hope is recreated, the malaise will
PPP electoral Reform
Package addresses the issues of enfranchisement of the people through
transparent electoral process.
Pakistan Peoples Party
election proposals include guidelines to restore to the public the
sanctity of the ballot without which the forces of freedom, of fundamental
human rights and economic emancipation will continue to elude the country
of the means to advancement.
The oppressors of the
people used religious parties as well as the strategic location of
Pakistan to exploit international opinion in a bid to gain legitimacy.
Their politics gave birth to violence and the kalashinkov culture.
An earlier military
dictator used Afghanistan’s critical importance to the world community to
perpetuate his own dictatorship. Now another military dictator is
attempting to use Afghanistan to perpetuate himself at the cost of the
fundamental and human rights, including economic rights, of the people of
The concentration of
absolute power is detrimental to the welfare and prosperity of the
Federation. It threatens to give birth to ethnicity, poverty and violence.
It threatens to make Pakistan another Yugoslavia. Every patriotic citizen
must rise up to support the PPP Parliamentarians in saving Pakistan from
an unfortunate fate.
The former Soviet Union
collapsed under the weight of military dominance. Other countries
collapsed under the weight of civil war leading to massive bloodshed
played out on international television screens. To save Pakistan from such
a calamity towards which the absolute concentration of power threatens to
lead the Nation, we can remember the words of our great leader Quaid e
He said, “Pakistan must
seek peace within and peace without”. The PPP Parliamentarians pledges to
give Pakistan and the region “Peace within and peace without” with honour
The message of Islam is the
message of Peace. It is a message of brother hood and love. The holy
saints in the valley of the Indus preached a message of love and
compassion. These are symbolised in the words and verses of Data Sahib,
Shah Abdul Latif of Bhittai, Baba Farid Ganj and Lal Shahbaz Qalander.
The sufi saints adopted
simple means of living and high thinking. Its time we did the same.
The PPP Parliamentarians
commits itself to religious tolerance. Religious beliefs of individual
citizens have little to do with the business of the state.
Terrorism was born in the
bowels of dictatorship which recruited, trained, armed and financed
extreme factions while marginalising the moderate, democratic and
History teaches us that
democracies don’t go to war with each other and democracies don’t promote
international terrorism. The best guarantee of a safe and secure
Federation is in the values of freedom, fundamental rights and economic
empowerment of the people with checks and balances that end concentration
Dictatorship relabelled can
only play into the hands of the underground militants and extremists who
today are regrouping in Pakistan which witnessed terrible suicide bombings
that shook the Nation and its markets causing greater economic
PPP is proud to have given
Pakistan stability and the writ of the state in all its governments making
the safety of citizens its top priority. It can do so again.
The overthrow of the PPP
government in 1996 led to the impoverishment of the people of Pakistan.
For the first time in recorded history, mass unemployment reached such
heights that people chose to commit economic suicide because they were
unable to feed their families.
A country which under the
PPP became one of the ten emerging capital markets of the world,
attracting massive foreign investment became a barren landscape. Investors
fled from the country as they were unjustly scandalised in politically
motivated allegations by hostile regimes seeking to score political
The bill was picked up by
the unfortunate people of the country whose per capita income fell as the
gap between the rich and the poor widened.
The PPP had revenues to
build schools, hospitals, roads and provide people with basic amenities.
The regimes that replaced it froze foreign accounts, raised utility bills,
retrenched hundred of thousands of employees without any benefit to the
country. They brazenly cut the budgets that the PPP so painstakingly built
for important programs that included education, health, women’s
empowerment, youth, population control, labour and the rural poor. They
did this even as they hired favourites at exorbitant salaries paid in
The PPP Parliamentarians
pledges to eradicate poverty by ensuring that the social sector budget is
increased as is the Annual Development Plan. It is by investing in our
young people that we can build a progressive and prosperous society.
The PPP was honoured to
retire one billion dollars of Pakistan’s mountain of debt that crushes its
people and makes it a dependent Nation. It’s the only government that ever
retired capital debt.
opportunities that arose where Pakistan, like Egypt and Jordan could have
got the debt written off.
The PPP always took power
after rulers signed agreements with international financial institutions
locking it into pre fixed frameworks. As soon as the PPP strengthened the
economy enabling it to negotiate a better deal with the international
financial institutions, it was overthrown by the anti people forces.
Now the time has come for
the people of Pakistan to support the PPP Parliamentarians with a
two-thirds majority to enable it to continue its reform process to
liberate the people of Pakistan from the shackles of poverty, debt and
servitude. It is PPP Parliamentarians, and PPP Parliamentarians alone,
which can give the country honour, dignity, respect, hope, peace, progress
The PPP government presided
over boom economies during its three tenures in office. Sound macro
economic management allows private entrepreneurs to build investment,
trade and develop the economy. The PPP tripled growth rates and doubled
the national revenues while enjoying lowest deficit figures and bringing
in massive investment which created jobs and promoted the service industry
As the party that
introduced the privatisation bill and streamlined the revenue services
while creating boards at local bank branches for quick disbursement of
loans, the PPP is committed to the free flow of capital. The flow of
capital is the engine that drives a growing economy encouraging the youth
while ending unemployment which brings misery.
PPP introduced an
autonomous State Bank and a strong regulatory authority is necessary to
safeguard the deposits of the working and middle classes in the banking
sector. The seizure of foreign exchange reserves and collapse of
cooperatives as well as investment companies when PPP was in Opposition
robbed ordinary citizens.
PPP power projects, mass
telephone system enabled ordinary people to set up businesses when
previously power shutdowns and twenty year waiting lines for phone
prevented them from success in private initiatives.
PPP focuses on making the
changes that help people make successful businesses. PPP times are boom
times for the business communities as well as for the labour that is
absorbed by a booming market.
To support middle class
purchases a Pay As You Earn Scheme (Credit Purchases) will be adopted in
Government Corporations and other salaried institutions. A credit bank
will be established the purpose of which will be small and medium loans to
encourage instalment purchases of television, furniture, cars, houses,
refrigerators and other household and daily life necessities which are too
expensive for outright purchase by young and middle age purchasers. This
scheme will be expanded to include non-salaried institutions gradually.
Open Minds, Open Markets,
Open opportunities is our slogan as we change IOUs into MOUs.
A PPP Parliamentarians
government is necessary for sound macro management as well as for
investment, revenues, growth, employment and safeguarding the savings of
Our great martyred leader,
the Quaid e Awam, believed that education was the key to empowerment of
the people. He introduced free and compulsory primary education, promoted
centres of excellence, created Institutes of Science and Technology and
took Pakistan to the cutting edge of nuclear physics establishing centres
of nuclear medicine. He set up a chain of new Universities, Medical and
Engineering colleges in the neglected areas as a harbinger to a Muslim
Western countries developed
by encouraging free debate in universities of excellence which produce the
men and women needed to govern great nations.
Textbooks to government
primary schools will be provided free of cost while a means test will make
students eligible for additional government support. Libraries will be
promoted and vocational centres, on the pattern of the Computer Literacy
Internet access for
government schools will enable the children of the underprivileged to
access the worldwide information highway. The global language, English,
will be an optional language for students to study preventing lingual
apartheid where children of the rich speak English competing for world
wide jobs and children of the working classes are denied that opportunity.
Seeking an age of reason
and enlightenment, the PPP, which increased with extra billions education
budget in its two recent terms of power, pledges to make education a top
priority. It is education, and education alone that can enable our young
people to realise their full potential and compete with the best that the
world can produce in the field of art and science.
commits to its sons and daughters an education that enables a brighter
future than that of their parents so that they can hold high their head in
the comity of Nations.
Youth Force/Khadim e Danish
Youth are the future to
whom the torch passes. In developing our children, we strengthen the
foundations of our society. Involving youth in good, productive activities
grooms them with a higher moral mission to serve humanity. Establishment
of a Youth force, similar to the Lady Health visitors scheme, can assist
in education, literacy and health enhancing literacy rates and creating
Overseas Youth can be part
of the youth force creating links between expatriate community and the
foreign born new generation with their country of origin even as skills
promote community welfare.
Sports training will be
encouraged as well as holding of sporting tournaments.
The PPP heralded the
information age into Pakistan with colour television, fax machines,
e-mails and satellite television. It laid optic fibre lines in 1989 to
promote internet connections and digitalise telecommunications. In 1993 it
began computer literacy programs to herald the computer literate
PPP software parks in
Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore will be revised. The state will actively
equip the citizens to meet the demands of the future. It will give
incentives for software development as well as hardware development. A
special credit facility will be available for outstanding students to
develop ideas in the field of artificial intelligence and the computer
age. The government will supplement ordinary libraries with computer
libraries and internet access.
Having eliminated polio,
iodised salt and inoculated children in deadly diseases, the PPP pledges
investment in health. Its previous health policies won it the World Health
Organisation Gold medal. PPP aspires to win more medals for health for our
people believing that health is wealth. It increased health expenditures
in the past seeing in a healthy body a healthy society. Elimination of
lead poisoning and other simple measures can improve the quality of health
with small initiatives quantifying into big results.
PPP Parliamentarians will
improve government health centres and hospitals. It will establish Old
Peoples Homes as well as Homes for Poor Children to aid and assist
families that find such issues challenging.
Rule of Law
The basis of a civilised
society lies in the rule of law. In developed countries, those who
undermine the majesty of law go to prison. In our country too often the
victims of those who perpetuated injustices went to prison. Each elected
leader of Pakistan left office brutalised and criminalised while none of
the military dictators paid a price even when they disintegrated the
Nation and cannibalised the Constitution.
When the state apparatus
perverts the course of justice, evil consequences flow which undermine the
premise on which civilised society can be based.
It is to lift the lid on
state sponsored perversion of justice and perjured statements obtained
through torture which involved criminalising of the very custodians of law
that the PPP Parliamentarians proposes Truth and Reconciliation
Commission. The purpose of the Commission is to acknowledge victims of
political injustice who fell prey to state sponsored perversion of justice
to meet the ends of an unholy agenda to destroy trust in public
representatives and promote militarism of society.
Easy dispensation of
justice is the right of citizens. Too many suffer because of inability to
Innocent people languish in
jails without the funds to obtain judicial relief. Each High Court will
appoint Judicial Ombudsman to visit Jails and Thanas providing relief to
those deserving it.
Number of courts will be
increased as well as number of judges to ensure that cases are dealt with
Special courts will be
Law of foreclosure will be
examined in discussion with the Judiciary. It is strong foreclosures in
developed countries that enables the middle classes to obtain credit for
purchases such as apartments, cars, televisions and similar products where
lenders know that defaulters can be taken to task without a stay order.
Small Causes Courts and
Family Court at the local bodies' level can assist fair and easy justice.
More women and minority
judges will be inducted into the judiciary.
To fulfil Quaid-e-Azam
dream of a Federal and democratic Pakistan where the provinces enjoy full
autonomy, the Concurrent List will be abolished in keeping with the
The establishment of a
Constitutional Court will be examined in consultation with the Pakistan
Human Rights Commission as well as other bodies.
Tenures of District
Councils will be fixed and free from interference other than through the
judicial process to establish a pluralistic society where different
parties can exercise power at different levels. Simultaneously preventing
a culture of exclusion and winner takes all. This can enhance tolerance
and accommodation within the body politic of the country.
Election Commission will be
constitutionally protected although its actions can be scrutinised through
appeal to high courts. Election Tribunal cases must be decided
Closed Party List System
supports technocrat and Women’s seats on closed Party system. The system
of Open Party List System is untenable in a country where literacy rates
are low. Moreover ballot papers will become books as each party nominates
scores of candidates that voters must scan and mark with differing
supports the election of the Senate members by provincial assemblies
through open single transferable vote.
The Pakistan Peoples Party
Parliamentarians supports an independent and impartial anti corruption
office to investigate every citizen of Pakistan irrespective of the office
that he or she may hold.
The anti corruption body
will conduct itself according to the universal principles of due process
rather than become a handmaiden of hostile regimes against political
An accurate census is
essential to good planning. The census held previously will be examined by
a Commission to see whether it met the test of accuracy given strong
complaints made about its findings. PPP Parliamentarians will hold timely
census and ensure that the census results are accurate enabling resource
distribution equitably in the country considering citizens of different
provinces as equal Pakistanis.
The plight of women,
minorities, children and the wretched of the earth is miserable. It is a
deep stigma on our national conscience that disadvantaged groups suffered
a series of punishments, laws, public humiliations and gang rapes while
the state watched helplessly.
The PPP Parliamentarians
pledges to protect the minorities, women and children of Pakistan. It
pledges to protect the weak from the strong. It pledges to undo laws that
are discriminatory against minorities, women and children. It calls upon
the people of Pakistan to give it a constitutional majority to build a
society where the weak and underprivileged are freed from archaic state
The PPP Parliamentarians
pledges to promote universal female literacy and protection of the child
to honour our women and our future generations.
The PPP Parliamentarians
will encourage non governmental organisations as watchdogs for the
empowerment of women and minorities.
The independence of the
Police system will be encouraged enabling the Police force to groom a
professional body which is tough on crime and criminals. The unfortunate
history of political taint which demoralises the police force and
oppresses the citizen will be done away with. Police will be treated on
par with military officers and entitled to similar benefits. A strong and
professional police force is necessary to combat the forces of internal
Use of torture will be
prohibited and police training institutes upgraded with modern means of
forensic evidence and interrogation. Local recruitment of the police force
will be encouraged with matriculation as a minimum qualification.
Allegations of torture and
corruption will be examined by a Police Ombudsman appointed by the
Inspector General of Police.
PPP Parliamentarians prison
reforms aim at reforming prisoners enabling them to integrate into society
as responsible citizens. Concept of hard labour is outdated and can be
abolished. Prisoners will be encouraged to take classes to learn skills
and earn points towards good behaviour early release. They will be paid
proper wages for work undertaken and be entitled to purchase facilities
for themselves including television, computers and other products.
Communal rooms will provide internet access to selected sites as well as
reading material in libraries which is commensurate with modern
publications. Exercise classes will be held separately for men and women
prisoners for those wishing to avail of it. Medical attention will be
given promptly. Proper seating arrangements for interviews will be made.
Prisoners will have the
right to make available transport for going to court hearings in the event
of vehicle shortage.
administration is a prisoner of the home secretary. Prison administrations
will be given rules within which to function and will be autonomous in
their functioning. Complaints by government or prisoners can be made to
the Home Secretary and officers which will be reviewable before the
judicial authorities. Postings to prisons will be by tenure and officials
transferred earlier only on the basis of written complaints which can form
basis of a discrimination appeal.
Female prisoners will be
housed in separate quarters and looked after by female staff. No male
staff will be permitted entrance to the female quarters. Female quarters
will have similar facilities as male quarters with additional child care
Created as the Party to
protect Labour rights, the PPP introduced the reform for minimum wages,
cost of living, social security, medical cover, old age benefits, pensions
and other such measures for the betterment of the working classes.
The PPP is proud of its
record where Labour rights were fully protected. PPP Parliamentarians
opposes retrenchment of Labour. It pledges to hold high the banner of
Labour rights with a view to ensuring that Labour enjoys a good working
relationship with the government while enhancing productivity.
PPP Parliamentarians is
opposed to contract labour as well as retrenchment of labour. It supports
wage increases for labour given high rates of inflation. It supports laws
in accordance with the International Labour Organisation.
Review the situation with a
view to providing relief to retrenched workers. Additionally use Labour
welfare funds to build residential colonies for workers. Establish cadet
colleges for children of labor force.
The vast majority of the
people of the country are farmers eking out an existence in challenging
circumstances where water is in shortage.
It is the job of government
to ensure that the farmers get a good deal for their hard work.
The PPP government ensured
a farmer friendly policy which gave the country high growth rates and
productivity with yields going up from zero per cent to seven percent. The
Awami tractor scheme providing tractors at one and a half lacs was part of
the initiative that helped farmers for which the anti people forces
implemented false cases against PPP leadership.
The PPP Parliamentarians
pledges to look after the farmer with timely inputs of fertilisers, seeds
and water. It promises to give the farmer his due where prices are
concerned and relieve him from poverty through appropriate access to
The threat of water logging
and salinity will be countered with greater resource commitment by the
government and the completion of canals to serve that purpose. Small hydel
dams begun under the last government will continue.
Shortage of drinking and
agricultural water is the greatest challenge in the twenty first century
which will be met through the close cooperation between government,
farmers and technical experts.
The PPP Parliamentarians is
committed to devolution of power in accordance with its new social
It supports constitutional
terms for district governments. It supports district governments which are
independent of the Federal authority and have access to an appropriate and
independent fiscal base within the parameters of provincial autonomy.
The twenty first century is
the century of transparency and openness and of a free press. Ministry of
Information will be abolished. Each Ministry’s press department can liase
with the public on issues relating to it. Journalists from private sector
will be eligible for induction on contract basis and on competitive market
Elected Press Bodies will
be asked to establish a Complaints Commission on the basis of the British
system of Press Complaints.
Private sector can freely
establish television and radio stations without government permission
subject to operating within a legal framework.
A free and vibrant press is
the greatest guarantor against tyranny and oppression.
The PPP gave Pakistan
a strong defence to safeguard its territorial integrity and national
independence. The Quaid-e-Awam
gave Pakistan the nuclear program to achieve nuclear parity with India.
Benazir Bhutto gave Pakistan missile capability to enable the country to
match the Indian missile threat.
The PPP Parliamentarians
believes that a sound economic base promotes a strong defence. It seeks to
identify Pakistan’s core defence needs to enable the country to meet its
The PPP Parliamentarians
opposes waste and extravagance through non audited accounts and
re-appropriation of budgets. It plans putting in place a parliamentary
committee to inspect defence accounts which will also be submitted to the
defence committee of the cabinet.
Concerned about corruption
in defence deals, the PPP Parliamentarians plans greater transparency in
defence purchases and a rationalisation of defence expenditure to make the
armed forces fit and professional as they were before the military
dictatorship of General Zia in discharging their core responsibility of
defending the territorial integrity and frontiers of Pakistan.
The educational curriculum
in defence institutes was prepared to train an officer cadre that could
uphold the forces of military rule. That curriculum will be revised to
ensure military respect for democracy, democratic institutions and elected
officials. The true face of military dictatorship will be open in courses
to encourage officers to prevent the past with a view to building a better
future in accordance with the principles of Quaid e Azam.
The Pakistan Peoples Party
Parliamentarians opposes terrorism and will continue the policy of the
present regime to ally itself against the forces of terror.
The PPP Parliamentarians
supports the right of self determination of the people of Jammu and
Kashmir. It supports the creation of a Palestinian state which gives
security to the Palestinians.
The PPP Parliamentarians seeks good neighbourly relations with its
The PPP Parliamentarians,
without prejudice to the UN Security Council Resolutions, supports open
and safe borders at the Line of Control to socially unite the Kashmiri
people. It notes that India and China have a border disputer and yet enjoy
tension free relations. It seeks to reduce tensions with India through
peaceful negotiations to outstanding Disputes and issues.
The PPP Parliamentarians
supports a South Asian Free Trade Zone. It believes that such a zone can
enhance markets and job opportunities as well as enable the South Asian
countries to formulate consensus views for World Trade Organisation and
other international bodies that are coming into being to ensure that they
are supportive of the rights of the people of South Asia.
The war against terror
focuses attention on the danger of rogue elements accessing nuclear
systems of countries with inadequate command and control systems. The
nuclear control and command centres as well as nuclear safety measures
will be ensured by the PPP Parliamentarians government to allay
international fears and safeguard the nuclear assets.
PPP Parliamentarians will
continue to cement and enhance relations with Pakistan’s traditional
Pakistan Embassies and Government Functionaries
Pakistan Embassy staff and
government functionaries will be given consumer friendly courses to train
them in meeting the demands of the citizens with courtesy. Too often the
staff in the embassies and offices are viewed as masters rather than
facilitators of the public. This will change as the colonial training is
shed for modern citizen dealing.
Faith, Freedom, Fundamental
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity for a prosperous Pakistan is the
birthright of every Pakistani. It is a birthright too often snatched at
the point of the gun from the citizens by the very men who are to guard
and defend us. This can stop to enable the people and the country to march
with confidence and courage, with pride and dignity, with progress and
prosperity into the twenty first century.
Pakistan is a great
Federation. Its multilingual, multicultural society is its strength. Its
sons and daughters are its true assets, the bright face of its future, the
promise of all our tomorrows.
The Pakistan Peoples Party
is the only Federal, democratic and equal opportunity Party that can
guarantee to our great people a great future. The PPP worker is selfless
and committed to the values of Faith, freedom, fundamental human rights,
family values and a wholesome society based on the rule of law and human
The founding principle of
the Party Islam is our religion places a responsibility on each PPP
supporter to reach out in a spirit of accommodation and tolerance to all
faiths, to prevent the state from interfering in the religious rights of
the citizens (which breeds sectarianism) and to treat people of all faiths
with respect enabling them to enjoy religious freedom and equality before
The second principle of the
PPP ideology is that democracy is our policy. The PPP commitment to
freedom and fundamental rights, including freedom from hunger and want, is
written in the blood of its martyrs and in the red marks of lashes on the
back of its workers. It is written in the suffering and sacrifice of its
leaders the greatest of whom was Quaid e Awam. He faced the gallows
refusing to bow before tyranny defending the human rights of our citizens
to the last of his breath.
In every age, including
today, PPP leaders and office bearers are behind bars, in exile, banned
from travelling defending their Party at greater personal cost to their
families and themselves. We are proud of our workers who kept high their
morale even as political orphans and opportunists colluded in the murder
of justice to eliminate the one political counterforce to the powers of
The third PPP principle is
that musawaat is our economy. Believing in a humane economic system, the
PPP Parliamentarians aims at creating a just and equitable society with
equal opportunity for all its citizens. The gap between the rich and the
poor is one that can be bridged given the commitment to reach out to the
underprivileged, the downtrodden and the discriminated. The PPP
Parliamentarians is proud of being the voice of the poor, the working
classes and the middle classes. Our policies, while dedicated to the
underprivileged created conditions that enabled the business and trading
classes to prosper.
We believe that humans are
one chain and by helping one part of the human chain, all the
interconnecting nets are also helped. We believe that violence begets
violence and peace begets peace. Our leaders reject revenge to devote
themselves to the challenges of governance producing a society that grows
and develops to the advantage of the citizens where the writ of government
provides security to the citizen as well as opportunity.
The final principle of the
PPP is All Power to the People. We believe that Almighty Allah has blessed
the citizens of this world as His trustees. The people are God’s agents
and it is the verdict of the people freely expressed that can bring true
blessings to a land and enable us as Muslims to co-exist in peace and
harmony with Non Muslims to build together a world of peace, freedom,
justice and economic opportunity.
These four principles are
described by the PPP workers as Bhuttoism, the policy that guides us in
our decision making and enables us to work with dedication and
determination to fulfil the dream of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam.
Vote for us:
Vote for Peace, Freedom and Economic Opportunity
Peace, Freedom and Economic
Opportunity are the principles that can overcome the forces of hate and
revenge and build our pure land into green fields of human advancement.